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Fats That Will Prematurely Age You & Your Skin

moroccan prickly pear cactus fruit

One of the worst food groups we eat that can age your skin and lead to health problems are – fats.

But not all fats are bad. Some will protect your skin from aging while others accelerate it.

But do you should know which is which?

Free Radicals & the Aging Process

You may have already heard about free radicals?

They are molecules that wreak havoc in the body. They damage DNA and cells, causing “mistakes” in cell replication which leads to aging and also disease. [ 1 ]

“Bad” fats accelerate the process and kick off a chain reaction where free radicals react to produce even more free radicals.

Worse news still, when it comes to skin aging free radicals attack from two directions. From the inside, through the type of fats we eat, and also from the outside by UV light. [2]

 

How Can Fats & Oils Speed up the Aging Process

The answer that fats are oxidised in a process known as Rancidification.  [3]

Leave out a glass of corn oil and it will oxidise within seconds to produce some of the worst free radicals, lipid hydroperoxide molecules.

Studies have linked oxidized lipids produced during rancidification to inflammation, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, organ damage and more.

The “official” position is “there is not enough evidence to link the two”. However, I think instinct tells us to avoid rancid smelling products. Why?

 

The Aging Rancid Fats to Avoid

Unfortunately, much processed food is absolutely packed with ingredients that turn rancid.

Cakes, pre-prepared sauces, peanut butter, mayonnaise not to mention fried fast-foods of course

Meats are a problem because both the fat and cholesterol start to oxidise from the moment the animal is killed. It is such a powerful process that even frozen fats in meat will continue to oxidise and become rancid.

 

The Next Level: Trans Fatty Acid Nightmares

Trans Fatty acids have been identified as one of the most dangerous food additives.

A 2007 report for the UK government Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition went so far as to rule that:
“… there was sufficient evidence for an association between trans FA intakes and coronary heart disease (CHD) and for adverse effects on circulating lipoprotein concentrations, to recommend that the average population intake of trans FA should not exceed 2% food energy. “ [6]

Also, a 1993 a study published in the British medical journal Lancet found that:
“women who eat four or more teaspoons of margarine a day have a 50 percent greater risk of developing heart disease than women who eat margarine only once a month” [2]

So there are some real concerns about Trans Fats.

 

Natural vs Artifical Trans Fatty Acids

There are natural trans Fatty acids which are found in dairy and meat and are not a big issue.

However, there are also artificially made types known as “hydrogenated” or “partially hydrogenated” oils. This hydrogenation process is used to make a more solid and spreadable product.

This type of hydrogenated oil is probably most well known for their use in “margarines”.

However, they are found in many processed sweet, carbohydrate based foods: Margarines, Vegetable oils, Sweet Cakes/Pastries, Ice cream, Fast Foods in general and even Bread

Note that these trans fats may be listed amongst the emulsifiers in food. They may be labelled as ‘mono and diglycerides of fatty acids’

 

What makes Trans Fatty Acids so Bad?

With regards to aging a big problem with these unnatural fatty acids is that when you eat them your body releases a flood of damaging free radicals in an attempt to metabolise and digest these unnatural fats.

Furthermore, when these trans fatty acids get into your cells they become rigid and dysfunctional and are strongly implicated in heart disease. [8]

If that was not bad enough, the trans fatty acids also raise LDL cholesterol and reduce HDL cholesterol. As we know high cholesterol levels are linked to many diseases, Strokes, Liver dysfunction, Type 2 diabetes & reduced insulin sensitivity, Alzheimers and even infertility in women. [9]

The Cholesterol produced is a problem all of its own. It is yet another fatty substance it embeds in places like the arteries and quickly reacts with oxygen to form Cholesterol Oxidised Products. These are very powerful free radicals.

 

Good Fats and Anti Aging Food

Monounsaturated Fats

Fats are an unavoidable and essential part of our diet.

To try and avoid the negative effects fats and oils try to use monounsaturated fats.
They are slow to oxidise and turn rancid.

The connection between monounsaturated fat consumption and heart health is thought to be that monounsaturated fats slow oxidation and lower LDL cholesterol.

In addition, the anti-oxidant vitamin E works even better when in the presence of a monounsaturated fat.[6]

Oils that are rich in monounsaturated fats include: Olive, Culinary Argan Oil, Macadamia Nut Oil, Flaxseed Oil, Avocados, Almonds and Hazelnuts.

 

Fish Oils

Omega-3 Oils are especially good for protecting your skin from aging.

The best sources include oily fish as well as some plant and nut oils… flaxseed, culinary argan oil, walnuts and soya.[7]

 

 

 


Tips For Spotting fake Products

So..what about those 5* Reviews?

Almost all fake online reviews are manipulated these days.

Fake sellers add fake positive reviews to attack competition. This is because a high star rating gets you to the top of a search in marketplaces like Amazon.

Aggressive fake sellers target genuine 5* products adding negative 1* fake reviews to lower their ratings.

However, at the end of the day, this can actually provide some very clear signals that a product, hotel room, or restaurant is best avoided.

Here is our checklist of things we discovered to help you to spot fakes.

 

Spotting Fake Products from Their Reviews

1. Ratings that Swing Between 5* and 1*

You’ll see this a lot especially on Hotel Sites and restaurants – so watch out when booking this year 🙂

After getting series of poor reviews owners to pay to add 5* reviews to boost the average up.
An even stronger signal of fake reviews is that they swing between 1* and 5* with little in between.

 

2. Too Many Reviews

Where we sell items through product marketplaces we do not chase reviews.

Consequently, over the years we see that very few people actually take the trouble to leave a review. So when we see a product online with 5000 reviews I take that as a warning to look a bit closer.

Sometimes we see reviews that are totally unrelated to the product being reviewed.

 

3. Spotting Professional Reviewers

Another tip you can use on sites like Amazon.

We saw what looked like a fairly priced oil with a fair description.
But then after a few 4* and 5* reviews a series of 1* reviews saying it was fake.. horrible…no good.

A top tip if you are not sure is to click on the picture/link to the reviewer.
This should bring up all their reviews.

In this case, the person was writing 3, 4 reviews a week!
Sometimes 2 reviews in a day.

Plus, a strong warning sign they were all either 5* or 1*.

Which is odd? But not if you are running a service to add fake positives for your client and try to trash the competition with 1* reviews!

 

4. Poor Spelling or Grammar

Many of the people offering review writing services are based on freelancer sites.
Many of these are in countries where English is not the native language.

In this case, bad English and grammar is often a warning sign.

 

5. Over the Top Reviews

A bit like bad English.. over-the-top positive or negative phrases may be a warning sign the seller may be manipulating results.

5* reviews saying “Incredible… Best ever.. Instant results”
or 1* reviews “Horrible …. Disgusting”…

Of course, they may be genuine but it may be worth cross-checking the reviewers’ other reviews as we say above.

 

6. Average Price for a Product

In life, you do tend to “get what you pay for” and probably the best guide for quality is product price.

When we source 1000 Kg of cactus fruit to get enough seed to make just 1 litre of oil and then I see 30ml / 1 oz advertised for £10 including postage it does ring alarm bells.

Genuine products are generally all within a price range.
Some try to create a brand. Buy oils from suppliers and create beautiful packaging to sell at a premium price.
Others concentrate on product quality as far as possible to keep prices down.

But there are limits to what a genuine product can be sold for.

Also, bear in mind that marketplaces like Amazon can take up to 25% or more of the total selling price and often include free postage.
This leaves the poor seller to make/sell the product, pack it and post it and make a profit on 75% of what you paid!

So, for example, if you are comparing products:
30ml £29..Ok….
next one 30ml £33. Alright…
then 30ml £27. Oooo better…
then 30ml £11. !!! Alarm bells ringing

If you are on a marketplace like eBay

 

7. Descriptions

On a fake product descriptions are often deliberately misleading.
Contains “100% pure Argan Oil” is not the same as “100% Pure Argan Oil”.

 

8. Verified Purchases

Reviews will normally indicate if the reviewer purchased the product.
That may be a good indicator.. but then it is not difficult for a fake seller to pay someone to buy their product.

9. Price Guides

Most market places will have a box usually at the bottom of the page with “other offerings”.
This is sometimes a good place to quickly cross-reference prices to make sure you are paying a reasonable market rate.

 


 

Antiviral & Anti Bacterial Essential Oils for Flu, Asthma, Bronchitis & Respiratory Tract Infections

Essential Oils for Flu Viruses

This article started as research into the antimicrobial benefits and uses of essential oils.

However, we soon realised that this subject is too big to cover in-depth in a short article.
With the current Corona Virus outbreak in everyone’s mind, we decided to focus on research into oils that have benefits for cold and flu.

So here is our selection of antimicrobial essential oils tested on Influenza and Respiratory infections.

First things First

Before we start. To be clear we are not offering any medically qualified opinion.

We are not suggesting that essential oils are some kind of “miracle cure” for viral diseases.

However, study after study into the volatile oil compounds found in many essential oils confirmed wide ranging antimicrobial effects. Many of these effects suggest they could possibly slow even prevent flu /pneumonia / respiratory viruses developing. They are also of use in treatment of sore throats and amelioration of bronchial problems. Prehaps of interest to note, in todays health epidemic, studies found good antiviral effect on the SARs-cov ( RNA virus ) and Klebsiella pneumoniae.[568]

If you would to try using essential oils and would like any helping sourcing the correct types then please feel free to get in contact.

We do have our oil blending and bottling facilites so if there is enough interest we may be able to produce some pre-mixed oil blends?

Check back soon for part 2 which will be a selection of recipes for making natural balms, hand sanitiser, surface cleaners and more. I can add you to our mailing manually if you get in touch or just buy any of our products and you’ll get our newsletter. 🙂

 

 

What’s an Antimicrobial?

The term Antimicrobial medicines cover a range of medicines or treatments.

Virus vs. bacteria – what’s the difference?

Viral infections and bacterial infections are very different. [66]

A virus is a microorganism that attaches to living cells and spreads through our bodies. Viruses are smaller than bacteria but can be just as dangerous.

While bacteria is its own living organism capable of growing and spreading on its own, a virus relies on host cells to survive. Viruses are often more difficult to treat than bacteria.

Because a virus lives inside a normal cell, killing the virus often results in damage to its host cell.
They also have the ability to mutate, making them invulnerable to treatments or vaccines that might have previously worked.

Antimicrobial Groups

Compounds in essential oils can have a range of medicinal effects that include antiviral, antifungal, antiseptic and also antibiotic.

  • Antibiotics: used against bacteria
  • Antifungals used against fungi.
  • Disinfectants (such as bleach) are used for non-living surfaces
  • Antiseptics are used for living tissue and help reduce infection during surgery
  • Antibiotics are used to destroy microorganisms within the body

 

Essential Oils as Antimicrobials?

Plants, like humans or animals, have to protect themselves against predators such as microbes or fungus.

This is why plants have evolved natural Cytotoxic effects. These compounds disrupt cell structure and make bacterial cell membranes permeable. They affect cellular functions including membrane potential, efflux pump activity or respiratory activity.

The effectiveness of many of these naturally occurring compounds has already been investigated. Studies show that they are particularly effective against disease characterized by excessive cell growth and proliferation such as cancer or bacterial infections [561]

The Lamiaceae family, in particular, is one of the most important herbal families with biological and medical applications. The most well-known spices being thyme, mint, oregano, basil, sage, savory, rosemary, self-heal, hyssop, lemon balm.

Most importantly they seem to offer some hope in areas where “conventional” medicine is failing.

 

 

The Best Antimicrobial Essential Oils for Flu, Respiratory Tract Infections & Sore Throat

table with small coloured bottles of essential oils

We have selected 7 essential oils. These appear to have the widest range of benefits for respiratory diseases.

There are actually many more but we had to stop somewhere! The first 4 are the real “stars” for fighting flu/respiratory and many other viruses/bacteria.

Next Tea Tree Oil, Lavender, and Oregano – great antiseptics and antimicrobials to have for general use.

Spike Lavender and Cinnamon were reported to have good effects for Bronchial conditions ( In fact for throat and Bronchial conditions Peppermint – Mentha piperita – is also strongly recommended ).

For each oil we have a summary, then you can expand that to read more detail if you like.
At the bottom of the article are links to any studies referenced.

  • The common name: e.g. Bay Leaf
  • The variety: e.g. Laurus Nobilis [ important for sourcing the correct oil variety ]
  • What they were tested against e.g. SARs-cov, K. Pnemonia
  • Any specific bacterial or viral tests listed in scientific studies.

 

1. Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis)*

laurus nobilis

Laurus nobilis essential oil was found to have inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV and HSV-1 replication * in vitro as well as upper respiratory tract infections *.[569][568]

Laurus Nobilis essential oil also has an effect on antibiotic resistant bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacteria can cause infections in the blood, lungs (pneumonia) *. This multidrug resistant bacteria can cause ventilator-associated pneumonia * and various sepsis syndromes.

Laurus nobilis oil has a wide-range of antimicrobial and antifungal activity.

 

2. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Lamiaceae)*

thyme plant

The Essential Oil of thyme, clove and cinnamon bark may all have promising antibacterial activity against many respiratory tract pathogens.[56][561]

Studies discovered that Thymus vulgaris was effective against 120 strains of bacteria from patients with infections of the tooth decay ( S. mutans. ) oral cavity & respiratory infection * and genitourinary tracts.

Thymus vulgaris was found to have extremely strong activity against all of the clinical strains. [118]

  • Most effective against S. mutans
  • Influenza virus A1/Denver/1/57 (H1N1) 100% inhibitory in the liquid phase at 3.1 µL/mL
  • Haemophilus spp.[118]
  • M. catarrhalis [118]

Bacterials

  • ß-haemolytic Streptococci strains, e.g., S. pyogenes.[41]
  • S. aureus ATCC 25923 [119]
  • >K. pneumoniae [119]{E1}
  • Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
  • E. coli [119]
  • P. aeruginosa[119]

Fungals

  • Malassezia furfur ( yeast face forearms scalp ) 450–900 µg/mL [42]
  • Fusarium graminearum , A. flavus , conidia, A. niger

Antimicrobial Groups

  • antifungal antibacterial antiparastitic antiviral

Use For

  • Throat Respiratory

Names

  • common thyme, German thyme T. zygis Spanish thyme, white thyme

Safety Notes Thyme (Red) Essential Oil Thymus vulgaris Tested non-toxic at low levels. Skin, mucus membrane irritant. Avoid with high blood pressure, pregnancy. Potential hepatoxic at high levels.

 

3. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)

cinnamon

There were 30 studies into the in-vitro anti-microbial properties of Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil made from Cinnamon Bark.

The oil was found to have a antimicrobial action on a wide variety of bacteria. In addition, it is active against numerous fungi and also the human rota-virus [118] [121]

During the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic Cinnamon powder or oil was often combined milk and taken to reduce temperature.[648]

 

4. Sage (Salvia officinalis)

salvia oficinalis

Salvia has been used in herbal medicine for thousands of years.[109][103][461]

The Latin name comes from the words salvare, to cure, and officina, pharmacy and is well known for its antimicrobial effects.

It was found to be active against respiratory disease * including the coronavirus SARS-CoV * (RNA virus).[568]

The high vapor permeability of sage essential oil makes it interesting as disinfecting air freshener against airborne microorganisms *.

 

5. Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia L.)

tea tree oil

In recent times Tea Tree Oil has gained a reputation as safe and effective natural antiseptic* with anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties.

The pure oil has an inhibitory effect on influenza virus replication and could act as a preventative treatment.[402]

It is often used to make surface or hand sanitiser, treat cuts and spots, repels mosquitos and more.

A must have household product,

 

6. Lavender Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia – L. angustifolia)

lavender oil

Acute bronchitis normally includes acute cough.

Spike Lavender has a high concentration of camphor and was recommneded for cough, bronchitis, congestion, asthma *. It has expectorant and mucolytic properties. This makes spike lavender essential oil helpful for getting rid of excess mucus in the lungs. Wheezing and hoarseness are as a result of a bronchial epithelium infection. Treatment of acute bronchitis focuses on symptom relief by supporting expectoration and alleviating cough.

Several clinical studies showed improved symptom relief in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with plant preparations containing 1,8-cineole and/or linalool. Spike lavender ( lavandula latifolia ) essential oil (Spicae aetheroleum, Spicae ae.) is rich in linalool and 1,8-cineole.[448][561]

 

7. Oregano (Origanum vulgare)

oregano essential oil

Origanum is used as an antimicrobial, digestive, expectorant, & aromatic for hooping & convulsive coughs[255][256]

O. vulgare (oregano) also inhibits the growth of Candida albicans.[257]

The leaves of Origanum were used for diabetes, insomnia, catarrh, and asthma.[260]

 

 

How to Use Antiviral, Antiseptic & Antibacterial Essential Oils for Flu

bottle of oil

Power Method 1: Heat / Air Convection

Whether you are using oils to freshen a room or for a theraputic effect.

Put your chosen oils into a small bowl or onto a plate. Then place it on a warm place such as a radiator and the oils will slowly evaporate.

Power Method 2: Warm in Your Palm

Simple and direct.

  1. Put a few drops of your oils into the palm of the hands.
  2. Rub them together quickly until warm the oil.
  3. Cup the hands and inhale.

A simple method ideal for when you are out and about.

Good for delivery for sore throats, blocked/tight chest or general antiviral action. Carry the oils/blend of oils in a small, 10ml, bottle with a dropper insert. This will allow you to dose/dispense oils in a very controlled way.

Important: Be careful as the smell may be very strong and cause irritation

Option 1: Aromatherapy Diffuser

You can buy a dedicated electric Aromatherapy Diffuser.

These can be used for health aromatherapy or just as an air freshener.
This may be a bit less messy and will also give a more powerful dispersion of oils.

There are two types of aromatherapy diffusers.

Ultrasonic Diffuser

These are the cheapest and most widely available.
Add the essential oils to a water bath and it is atomised.
However, since this also atomises the water it will act as a humidifer.. which may or may not be ok.

Air / Waterless Diffuser
These work using the pure oil only.

Option 2: Aromatic Balms, Oils, Gels

Carrier oils or balms are rubbed onto the skin. They are ideal for a slow, long term release of active oil compounds.

You probably already know “Vicks Vapor Rub” and “Tiger Balm“.
These work on the same principle we are discussing here. A selection of natural essential oils are blended in a carrier then applied externally to your skin.

“Vicks” is to used help aid breathing during colds or flu and “Tiger Balm” to help treat muscle aches or pain.

vicks vapor rub“Vicks Vapor Rub”, for example, contains the oils:

    • Camphor oil – cough suppressant and topical analgesic
    • Eucalyptus oil – cough suppressant
    • Cedarleaf oil – anti-rheumatic and expectorant properties

Nutmeg oil – natural pain killer, cough suppressant

The Base/Carrier
Remember some essential oils are very concentrated and can cause a burning sensation if applied directly to the skin undiluted. Oregano for example.
With ALL these methods start with small amounts, a few DROPS, first!

Carrier Oil
Natural oil can be used as a carrier.
Argan Oil is a very good choice because it will “absorb” most essential oils and they will not separate out.

Carrier Gel
A neutral Aloe Vera gel is a widely available product and maybe a good choice for a base.
Some Aloe Vera gels are already available in supermarkets with Tea Tree or Witchhazel added.

Carrier Balm
Most commercial balms use paraffin wax.
However, it is fairly easy to make a natural sticky balm with bees was.
In part two of this article, we will be listing a number of recipes for making balms and anti-bacterial cleansers.

How to Use a Balm
Most of the essential oils are highly aromatic.
So you may want to use them as an overnight treatment.

Rub your aromatic oil blend onto and areas such as the chest, neck or throat.
The natural warmth of the body will release the volatile oils overnight.

Option 3: Steam Inhalation

A traditional method.
Put about 7 drops of the essential oil to 2 cups of very hot water and put into a bowl.
Lean over the bowl, ideally, put a towel over the back of the head, then inhale the steam, gentley through the nose.
It may help to close your eyes to avoid any potential irritation.

Option 4: Sore Throat Mouth Wash

A sore throat is often caused by the candida virus.

However, many essential oils are effective against candida. So making a mouth wash may be a good way to use the oils.

Add one to two drops of the oil to half a glass of warm water.
You can use this for gargling and mouthwash.

Do not swallow the mixture!

 

 

Safety & Dilution When Using Essential Oils

Diluting Essential Oils:

Pure essential oils are very concentrated and can cause a reaction and skin irritation.
Just about all essential oils should be diluted before use.

Recommended Dilutions: The recommended dilutions for essential oils vary for each oil. Typically essential oils can be added to a carrier oil in a dilution between 1% to 5%. A standard dropper dispenses around 0.05 ml per drop. This means there are 20 drops in 1 milliliter.

60ml / 2oz of Argan carrier oil

  • 1% dilution : 12 drops : 0.6ml
  • 2% dilution : 24 drops : 1.2ml / [ most common dilution level ]
  • 4% dilution : 48 drops : 2.4ml

Per Tablespoon

  • 1% dilution : 3 drops
  • 2% dilution : 6 drops [ most common dilution level ]
  • 5% dilution : 15 drops per tablepoon

Part Two of this article, How to use essential oils to make antibacterial products, coming soon.

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{D2} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudomonas#Animal_pathogens

{D4}https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Listeria_monocytogenes

{D5}https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shigella_flexneri

{D6} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haemophilus_influenzae#Signs_and_symptoms

{D9} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_aureus

{E1} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klebsiella_pneumoniae

{L1} The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2752739/

[1] [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytotoxicity ]

[17] Holzinger F, Beck S, Dini L, Stoter C, Heintze C. The diagnosis and treatment of acute cough in adults. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2014;111(20):356–363.

[18] Juergens UR. Anti-inflammatory properties of the monoterpene 1.8-cineole: current evidence for co-medication in inflammatory airway diseases. Drug Res. 2014;64(12):638–646. doi: [10.1055/s-0034-1372609.

[19] de Cassia da Silveira e Sa R, Andrade LN, de Sousa DP. A review on anti-inflammatory activity of monoterpenes. Molecules. 2013;18(1):1227–1254. doi: 10.3390/molecules18011227. [PMC free article]

[24] 24. Sienkiewicz M., Lysakowska M., Ciecwierz J., Denys P., Kowalczyk E. Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils. Med. Chem. 2011;7:674–689. doi: 10.2174/157340611797928488. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] https://dx.doi.org/10.2174%2F157340611797928488

[103] 103. Ghorbani A., Esmaeilizadeh M. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components. J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2017;7:433–440. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.12.014. [PMC free article] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29034191

[109]. Sharifi-Rad M., Ozcelik B., Alti G., Daskaya-Dikmen C., Martorell M., Ramírez-Alarcón K., Alarcón-Zapata P., Morais-Braga M.F.B., Carneiro J.N.P., Borges Leal A.L.A., et al. Salvia spp. plants-from farm to food applications and phytopharmacotherapy. Trends Food Sci. Technol.
https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.tifs.2018.08.008

[118] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6064118/

[121] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3854496/

[38] Inactivation of Airborne Influenza Virus by Tea Tree and Eucalyptus Oils
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02786826.2012.708948

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[56] 56. Moghimi R., Ghaderi L., Rafati H., Aliahmadi A., McClements D.J. Superior antibacterial activity of nanoemulsion of thymus daenensis essential oil against E. coli. Food Chem. 2016;194:410–415. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.139. [PubMed] [CrossRef] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187138

[ 448] Spicae aetheroleum in uncomplicated acute bronchitis: a double-blind, randomised clinical trial https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435634/

[561] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612361/
[30]-[39]

[49] Suzuki É.Y., Baptista E.B., Resende Do Carmo A.M., Chaves M., Afonso M.D.G., Chicourel E.L., Barbosa Raposo N.R. Potential of the essential oil from Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus as an antimicrobial agent. Acta Pharm. 2014;64:379–385. doi: 10.2478/acph-2014-0024.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296683

[50] Li L., Li Z.-W., Yin Z.-Q., Wei Q., Jia R.-Y., Zhou L.-J., Xu J., Song X., Zhou Y., Du Y.-H. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Med. 2014;7:1721.

[66] What is the Difference Between an Antiviral and an Antibiotic?
https://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-difference-between-an-antiviral-and-an-antibiotic.htm

[118] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6155610/

[119] http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/html/10.11648.j.jdmp.s.2017030201.11.html

[255] Dorman H. J., Deans S. G. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. 2000;88(2):308–316. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.x.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736000

[256] Novák I., Zámbori-Németh É., Horváth H., Seregély Z., Kaffka K. Study of essential oil components in different Origanum species by GC and sensory analysis. 2003;32(2):141–150. doi: 10.1556/Aalim.32.2003.2.3.
https://dx.doi.org/10.1556%2FAAlim.32.2003.2.3

[257] Lakhrissi B., Boukhraz A., Barrahi M., El H., Ouhssine M. Antifungal activity of essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) 2016;3:14–17.
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[461] Essential Oils as Antimicrobial Agents—Myth or Real Alternative?
Katarzyna Winska,1,* Wanda Maczka,1,* Jacek Lyczko,1 Malgorzata Grabarczyk,1 Anna Czubaszek,2 and Antoni Szumny1

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